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Benjamin Franklin's Inventions

Benjamin Franklin (1706 − 1790), " The First American," was an American statesman, writer, scientist, and inventor. He was the first to describe electricity as one thing, a fluid, under different pressures, not as separate things. He was the first to label them as positive & negative and the first to discover the principle of conservation of charge. He was the first to propose experiments to determine if lightening was electricity. He invented the lightening rod, battery, bifocals, the Franklin stove, a carriage odometer, and glass armonica. He noticed storms do not always move in the direction of prevailing wind. He noted a principle of refrigeration and conducted experiments on the concept, described in his letter, "Cooling by Evaporation." He experimented on the non-conduction of ice and heat's effects on conduction. He made findings in Oceanography and Meteorology. He is the first to describe the use of a "pro & con list," with cancellation methods to make a decision. His study of U.S. population growth, "Observations concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, &c." influenced economists Adam Smith & Thomas Malthus.

See Benjamin Franklin's Virtues below.

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Benjamin Franklin's Virtues

Franklin sought to cultivate his character by a plan of 13 virtues, which he developed at age 20 (in 1726) and continued to practice in some form for the rest of his life. His autobiography lists his 13 virtues as:

1. "Temperance. Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation."
2. "Silence. Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversation."
3. "Order. Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time."
4. "Resolution. Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve."
5. "Frugality. Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; i.e., waste nothing."
6. "Industry. Lose no time; be always employ'd in something useful; cut off all unnecessary actions."
7. "Sincerity. Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly, and, if you speak, speak accordingly."
8. "Justice. Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty."
9. "Moderation. Avoid extremes; forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve."
10. "Cleanliness. Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, clothes, or habitation."
11. "Tranquility. Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable."
12. "Chastity. Rarely use venery but for health or offspring, never to dullness, weakness, or the injury of your own or another's peace or reputation."
13. "Humility. Imitate Jesus and Socrates."

(source: wikipedia)

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